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Reinforcement Detailing of Isolated Footing

Reinforcement description of footing is the maximum amount vital as site investigation for the structural design of footing.
We all recognize that footing is associate degree indivisible a part of foundation construction. they're engineered by the assistance of concrete with rebar reinforcement. the target of footing is to supply adequate support to the muse and restrain settling. Footings square measure particularly crucial within the areas where soil condition isn't up to the mark.
That is why totally different aspects of reinforcement detailing of isolated footing is mentioned within the following sections.
Reinforcement detailing of isolated footing include:
1- Concrete cover of reinforcements: the minimum thickness to main reinforcement in footing should not be less than 50mm if footing is in contact with earth surface directly, and 40mm for external exposed face such as surface levelling PCC.
2- Minimum reinforcement and bar diameter ; Minimum reinforcement shall not be but zero.12 % of the overall cross sectional area.The minimum diameter for main reinforcement mustn't be but ten millimeter.
3- Reinforcement distribution in isolated footing : In one-way RCC footing, the reinforcement is distributed uniformly across the full width of footing.
However for short direction, the reinforcement is distributed in the central band as per calculations below.

Where y is the long side and x is the short side of the footing.
4- Dowel Reinforcement : Dowel reinforcement is used to tie the isolated footing to the above column. 
5- Lap splice :
Splice length of fixing and column reinforcement shall be clearly shown. Anchorage of each flexural and fixing reinforcement lengths shall be checked to stop bond failure of the dowels within the footing and to stop failure of the lap splices between the dowels and therefore the column bars.